Lithuania, second half of the 19th c.
19th c. Professional versus amateur
The 19th century is characterized by a large variety of styles and techniques. In Lithuania, the persisting tradition of Baroque was reflected in the decoration of liturgical vestments, and the impact of the mid-century Gothic revival in Europe was hardly felt. The back orphrey of chasubles often acquired the form of a cross. Medallions with Christograms, images of saints or the Lamb of God were placed at the intersection of the cross.
Other liturgical vestments
Liturgical vestments were supplemented by other elements. The stole is a long band with broadened ends, which became an indispensable attribute of the Holy Mass in the 9th century. At that time, the maniple worn on the left forearm was also included among liturgical vestments. The mitre, a bishop’s headdress, became established in the liturgy in the 11th–12th century. The gremial was a magnificent cloth laid across the knees of a bishop at a certain point in the liturgy.
Embroidery with metal and silk threads
In the early 19th century, specialized workshops of church implements were founded in many European countries, in which a new style of decoration of liturgical vestments was gradually developed. The mitre is hand-embroidered with metal and coloured silk threads.